In her latest piece, Katinka Barysch of the Centre for European Reform, whose articles on Russia’s energy politics we’ve blogged about on many occasions in the past, examines Russia’s role in the former Soviet region. Here’s an excerpt:
The perceived withdrawal of the US and the ineffectiveness of EU policy in the region has not so far played into Russia’s hands. Russia (like the EU and other players in the region) has had to learn that the former Soviet Union does not constitute a homogenous neighbourhood. There are cocky and cash-rich energy suppliers such as Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, and there are poor and divided countries such as Moldova and Armenia. Russia can cajole and coerce in one place but it has to plead and please in another. All countries in the region will benefit from being less dependent on Russia, in trade and energy terms as well as in politics. While the US might pay less attention to the region, the EU should redouble its efforts, while also taking more account of the the specific situations of individual countries.
Barysch argues that the energy sector is Russia’s only moderately succesful tool for exerting political influence on some parts of the former Soviet region:
Russia has repeatedly used trade embargoes and other economic means to put pressure on its neighbours, in particular smaller ones where Russia’s own business interests are limited, such as Georgia or Latvia. But there is arguably not a single instance where the use of economic sanctions has got Russia what it wanted. Businesses in the countries affected have reinforced their efforts to find alternative markets and sources of investments, making them less dependent on Russia in the long term. Russia’s strategy of gaining influence through directly controlling local businesses has proven more successful: in Armenia for example, various sectors from banking to transport are dominated by Russian-owned companies. How this will translate into political leverage remains to be seen.
This leaves energy as the most promising tool of Russia’s neighbourhood policy. Russia has used pipeline plans, nuclear projects, gas prices and oil deliveries to get what it wants from its neighbours. But even here, Russia’s success rate is mixed. In Belarus and Ukraine, Russia is making headway towards its aim of gaining control over transit pipelines. The recent standoff between Belarus and Russia over gas prices and transit fees only highlighted Minsk’s lack of options: Lukashenko’s announcement that he would buy gas from Venezuela was little more than symbolic. In Ukraine, Russia managed to use the offer of cheaper gas to get the lease for its Black Sea fleet in Sevastopol extended. It has also successfully pressured Kyiv into at least considering merging parts of the two countries’ gas monopolies, Gazprom and Naftogaz, which would give Moscow effective control over Ukraine’s transit pipelines.
The situation is very different in the Caucasus and Central Asia, whereenergy producing countries are gaining room for manoeuvre throughbuilding stronger links with China, Iran and Turkey.